Contentious Probate

Contentious Probate Solicitors In London

Our contentious probate solicitors specialise in advising in contentious probate matters. Our lawyers guide clients through sensitive and challenging issues taking prompt action to defend their client's interests.

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  • “Jan is excellent with clients. She approaches complex cases with confidence and skill”

  • “I think this firm has excellent strength and depth in this area, for both contentious and non-contentious work, and they can hold their own against any other firm.”

What is Contentious Probate?

Contentious probate encompasses disputes around the administration of someone’s estate, whether or not there’s a Will. The administration of an estate can be a complex and lengthy process and disputes can often arise. Our specialist contentious probate solicitors are experienced in sensitively guiding clients through challenging issues, taking prompt action when necessary.

Issues might be raised by disgruntled beneficiaries, personal representatives, trustees or dependents relating to, for instance, mismanagement of the estate, claims against the estate or the interpretation of a Will or a Will trust document.

On what grounds can you make a contentious probate claim?

Many people do not know what a contentious probate claim is until they have become embroiled in one. The root of these claims is a dispute over someone’s estate after they have died. They can take many forms, a few examples are:

  • Where a Will is invalid either due to a technicality (i.e. how it has been drafted) or if it has been made fraudulently or under duress or coercion or the person making the Will is thought not to have capacity at the time of making the Will;
  • Where someone you may have expected to inherit under a Will has not, such as a husband/wife or child;
  • Where the Executor under a Will is not acting properly in administering the estate or someone is preventing the estate from being correctly administered;
  • Where there is no Will and there are arguments as to who should deal with the estate;

This is by no means an exhaustive list but rather a highlight of the most common disputes we see.

The nature of these types of disputes are highly contentious and are invariably emotional and always costly. Although they are best avoided where possible, sometimes there is no choice if an issue cannot be resolved without legal assistance.

In order to try and avoid estate disputes it is imperative that you take expert advice as to your estate and what your wishes are. A properly drafted Will can dramatically reduce the possibility of the same being disputed. Conversely, a home drafted will can dramatically increase this possibility. Further, if you do not have a Will your estate will be dealt with in accordance with the Laws of Intestacy which set out which members of your family inherits from your estate.

If you find yourself in a position of dealing with a loved one’s estate and issues arise it is really important to seek advice as soon as possible. Letting an issue fester can exacerbate the situation and make it more complex to deal with, especially as there are certain procedures that need to be followed and time limits to keep in mind.

How Can Our Contentious Probate Solicitors Help?

Finding yourself involved in a probate dispute is likely to be difficult and distressing at a time when you may be grieving – and longing for normality. Our experienced probate litigation solicitors understand this: we take the time to understand the underlying issues and how we can help resolve the dispute.

Thankfully, most inheritance disputes are resolved outside court but if litigation becomes the only way forward to protect your interests, we would take prompt and aggressive action on your behalf.

Our probate team is experienced in all forms of contentious probate disputes, including:

Interpretation of a Will

Mistakes and ambiguities can arise in a Will. They are most common in ‘DIY’ Wills where the Will-maker is unlikely to have taken legal advice and may not have understood the legal ramifications of writing their own Will.

Typical errors in a contested will range from excluding a rightful beneficiary, such as a dependent; inadequately describing an asset; unclear terms as to who inherits on the death of a beneficiary; and purporting to leave an interest in a property they did not own.

Potential ambiguities that may give rise to a dispute include lack of clarity around the testator’s true wishes; and a failure in the intended tax mitigation behind the Will.

Our expert trust solicitors understand complex family trust arrangements and have helped many to resolve disputes to protect their wealth.

  • Concerns you may have regarding the administration of a trust
  • Removal of trustees
  • Court applications to vary the terms of a trust

The process of making a claim depends on whether the Grant of Probate has been issued. The issuing of the Grant can be paused by lodging a caveat with the Probate Registry; but if it’s already been issued, you only have six months in which to start a claim.

Assuming your claim has merits, we would send the executors formal notice of the dispute. We might need to ask the court for rectification of the Will to give effect to the testator’s true wishes and reach the best result for you.

Value of the estate

Disputes around the value of an estate can arise in various ways, eg how a property or interest has been valued; trust assets erroneously included within the estate valuation; and HMRC refusal to apply tax relief to an asset.

Such cases can be complex and we will need early access to documents and other information to assess the issues.

Challenging an executor

Executors have important legal and administrative responsibilities, including collecting in the assets, paying the debts and distributing the assets under the Will’s terms.

Where the Will creates a trust, the executor may also be a trustee – which imposes further legal duties. An executor (and trustee) who fails in their legal duties can expect to attract an inheritance dispute.

Beneficiaries can make an inheritance dispute against executors for breach of duty where their conduct falls short, for example, unreasonable delays, distributing assets incorrectly or prematurely, or where they are not acting in the best interests of the beneficiaries and the estate.

We could ask the court to replace an executor. This may be appropriate if relationships have broken down irreparably, but we can discuss the options with you.

Also see: 

Contested probate where there is no will

Despite the importance of having a Will, around two-thirds of UK adults do not have a valid Will. Some people don’t want to confront death while others don’t think they need one.

Then there are cases where the deceased left a Will – but no one knew about it. In a recent case, a 35-year-old man died apparently without a Will. 10 years after his death, a Will was found and a claim was brought. As it happened, the estate had not been distributed because of a family dispute. Allegations of forgery were not substantiated, and the court ruled the Will was valid – revoking the letters of administration granted to the deceased’s mother.

Where someone dies without a Will (‘intestate’) the intestacy rules under the Inheritance and Trustees Powers Act 2014 (ITPA) set out who inherits the estate. Where the deceased leaves a spouse (or civil partner) and no children, the spouse inherits the whole estate. But it’s less straightforward where there are children:

  • The spouse (or civil partner) inherits the deceased’s personal belongings; the first £250,000; and an interest in half of the remaining assets (the ‘residuary estate’).
  • The surviving children (this excludes stepchildren) inherit the remaining half of the residuary estate on reaching 18.

However, the law recognises that the application of the intestacy rules in some cases can be unfair if someone was financially dependent on the deceased.

Inheritance Act claims

The Inheritance Act 1975 permits anyone who was a dependent, spouse or child of the deceased to claim ‘reasonable’ financial provision if the intestacy rules or the Will (if there is one) fail to provide it. You only have 6 months to bring a claim.

Specific factors are considered when determining a reasonable financial provision, such as your present and future resources and the value of the estate.

If you need to bring a claim, our specialist solicitors can advise what may be a reasonable inheritance provision in your unique circumstances and attempt to negotiate a settlement with the other side. Click here for more information about Inheritance Act claims.

Creditor claims against an estate

Unknown beneficiaries can later emerge, claiming a slice of the estate, for example, estranged children whose identity and or location are unknown.

In most cases, executors take formal steps to protect themselves from such claims. But a recent court ruling shows they might not always be protected, particularly in the case of currently unascertained creditors, such as unknown victims of sexual abuse (Re Studdert [2020]), where the distribution of the estate has been paused for now.

How can we help?

Navigating the complexities of contentious probate can be overwhelming, especially during emotionally charged times. Whether you are facing disputes over a will, challenges with an executor, or any probate-related disputes, our experienced solicitors are here to help. Where disputes cannot be resolved, we encourage probate mediation as a first step.

The team is led by Jan Atkinson who is a registered Trust and Estate Practitioner (TEP) and a registered Contentious Trust and Probate Specialist (CTAPS). She is a well-known figure in the private client field, in large part as a result of her active role on the Law Society Private Client Section Executive Committee, her membership of the:

Jan writes regularly on contentious probate issues and lectures on these and related subjects.

To speak with one of our solicitors, contact us by:

  • Filling in our online enquiry form; or
  • Calling us on 020 7485 8811

Contentious Probate FAQs

What’s the difference between contesting a will and contentious probate?

Contesting a Will involves a dispute around the validity of the Will itself on grounds of, for instance, lack of mental capacity, fraud or forgery and invalid execution. Contentious probate involves wider issues around the administration of a deceased estate, whether or not there’s a Will.

How long do you have to make your contentious probate claim?

Time limits vary depending on the type of claim. In general, probate claims must usually be brought within 12 years from the date a person becomes entitled to a share of the estate. However, in some cases, these time limits can be considerably shorter so the key is to act quickly.

What are the grounds for removing an executor?

To remove an executor and appoint someone else, you’ll need to show that there are good reasons for doing so. This might include:

  • They have refused to act
  • You think they are mismanaging the estate
  • There is a conflict of interests – i.e. if they also inherit from the estate and you believe this is compromising their duties
  • They can’t perform their duties because of mental or physical disability
  • All the relevant parties have agreed
  • The named executor can’t be found.

Once an executor has accepted their role, they can’t step down except with a court order.

Do I have to go to court to contest probate?

Not usually, most wills disputes are resolved out of court through mediation and negotiation.

Resolving claims out of court is generally faster, cheaper and can reduce more conflict than is necessary following the death of a loved one.

It is a good idea to contact a contentious probate specialist before you involve any other relatives or beneficiaries of the estate.

How much does contentious probate cost?

Contested probate can be a complex and costly process, as it involves legal proceedings and potentially multiple rounds of litigation. The cost of contested probate will depend on a variety of factors, including the complexity of the case, the value of the assets at stake, the number of parties involved, and the length of time the case takes to resolve.

In general, contested probate cases can involve significant legal fees for lawyers, as well as other expenses such as court costs, expert witness fees, and other costs associated with preparing and presenting a case in court. It is not uncommon for contested probate cases to cost thousands of pounds, or even more in some cases.

It is important to keep in mind that the cost of contested probate can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances of the case. It is a good idea to consult with a contentious probate solicitor to get a better understanding of the potential costs involved.

Who pays for contentious probate?

As a general rule of thumb, the losing party in the dispute is responsible for paying the costs of all parties involved.  In some cases, the amount may instead be deducted from the deceased person’s estate using a Beddoe order. A Beddoe order is a Court order giving approval to an executor or trustee to take court action and that the costs of the action will be recoverable from the estate whatever the outcome.

Is it possible to fund probate disputes using litigation insurance?

Probate disputes can be very expensive and clients often find it difficult to find the money to cover their legal costs.

In these cases, the client is often entitled to money from an estate but cannot access that money without taking action via the court. Litigation loan companies are now offering a solution to this problem by providing a loan to clients as a facility to cover the costs of taking their cases forward. Each case has to be assessed on its merits, and the loan can be used by either a claimant or a defendant.

Traditional legal expenses insurance is often referred to as Before-The-Event or ‘BTE’ cover. Litigation insurance for probate disputes is often known as After-The-Event or ATE insurance. The latter is the term known to solicitors, but it may be more easily understood as Litigation Insurance. Whichever terminology you use, it is a tailored policy put in place to protect clients from having to pay the opponent’s costs and their own disbursements if they lose their case. It is unique in that the insurance policy is only entered into after a probate dispute has arisen.

Contentious Probate Solicitors Near Me

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