The law around E-bikes and E-scooters explained

16 Sep 2021 | Stuart Kightley

Table of Contents

Why are electric bikes legal but not scooters?

E-bikes and e-scooters are the new rides on the block. To many, they are the micro-mobility revolution that will deliver low-carbon, cheap, urban travel. To others, they are cheating. Or dangerous. Or illegal.

As with any new technology, micro-mobility devices offer opportunities and challenges, and lawmakers have the job of regulating them so that their obvious benefits can be enjoyed safely.

Why are electric bikes legal?

If an e-bike complies with the construction and use regulations, it is already allowed by law. The requirements are:

  • It must have a maximum power output of 250 watts
  • It must have a maximum powered speed of 15.5 mph (20 kph)

Find out how to make an E-scooter claim

It officially becomes an Electrically Assisted Pedal Cycle (EAPC) when these requirements are met. This gives it a special status, so it is not treated as a motor vehicle. Therefore, it is exempt from the road traffic acts that require insurance, helmets, tax and registration.

EAPCs are allowed on the roads and in cycle lanes (but not on pavements) and can be ridden by anyone aged 14 and over. As with bicycles, proficiency training and bike helmet use are recommended on safety grounds but are not mandatory. This is a light-touch legal framework, and e-bikes are essentially treated the same as bicycles. This makes sense – they are, in fact, the same as a normal bike, only the pedal power is enhanced by battery output within strict limits.

A small e-battery is better seen as encouraging those whom the prospect of cycling might otherwise daunt to venture onto the streets. This is especially so during the pandemic lockdown when alternative means of transport are even less appealing, and the roads are quieter than normal. An e-bike will smooth the hills and extend the range of the average cyclist so that commuting to work becomes an achievable target – at least for many, a realistic alternative to the tube, bus or car.

There is no evidence that e-bikes are more likely to be involved in cycle accidents – injuring the rider or anyone else – than normal bikes, so if they get more people on two wheels rather than four, it is hard to fault a bike that gives a bit more oompf for those who want it.

Head injuries are one of the most common injuries caused by bicycle accidents, accounting for around 40% of reported cycling injuries—these range from cuts and bruises to concussion, hairline fractures, severe brain damage, and fatalities. The most common type of head injury caused by cycling is concussion, which can cause dizziness, memory loss, temporary loss of brain function and speech control. The higher the speed of a cycling accident the more likely the head injury will be much more serious.

Why are electric scooters illegal?

An e-scooter is a slightly different animal. The law treats the e-scooter very differently, at least at present.

The electric scooter is a powered vehicle (technically a Personal Light Electric Vehicle). Therefore, unlike the e-bike, it is classed as a motor vehicle under road traffic legislation. However, it does not comply with the construction and use regulations (for instance, a registration plate and rear-facing lights) like other motor vehicles, so it is illegal on our roads.

Even if you were to have a compliant e-scooter, you would still have to comply with the rules requiring insurance, MOT, road tax and helmet to ride an e-scooter on the road legally. So, they are only currently allowed on private land (with the owner’s permission).

The penalty for use on a road is 6 penalty points and/or a £300 fine.

The annual casualties in Greater London report from Transport for London shows that serious injuries caused by ‘other’ vehicles, such as e-scooters, are on the rise, up to 56 from 10 in the previous year.

Find out how to make an E-bike accident claim

Legalising e-scooters

In the Spring of 2020, the government consulted on legalising e-scooters, and they indicated in the call for evidence that they were looking at regulating e-scooters so that they are treated the same as e-bikes. That is a low regulatory bar that sets a maximum speed limit (12.5 mph or 15.5 mph, or somewhere in between) and perhaps a maximum power output. There may be other construction requirements, such as having a handlebar (ruling out other forms of micro-mobility).

The government paper also sought views on whether to allow e-scooters on roads and cycle lanes (but not the pavement) and will need to consider what regulations to impose in relation to braking and lighting/reflectors; dimensions and ability to indicate; registration, licencing and age limits.

Governmental pilot scheme

Around the same time, it was announced that a 12-month pilot rental scheme for e-scooters would begin on 4 July 2020. From then on, local authorities could allow private e-scooter rental schemes within their area, subject to certain rules. The hope was that the change in transport use resulting from the pandemic lockdown would create an opportunity to encourage and roll out micro-mobility vehicles. The new scheme attracted headlines suggesting an e-scooter free-for-all, where all e-scooters became legal overnight. The reality was very different: from 4 July, the enabling regulations were put in place to allow rental schemes to be approved by councils, and at the time of writing, none have yet been publicised.

The rules under the scheme remain fairly tight. They will still be treated as motor vehicles during the trial. They will need insurance cover (to be arranged by the hiring company) and a valid driving licence (full or provisional). E-scooters hired under an approved scheme will be allowed to ride on roads, cycle lanes, and tracks, but not on pavements. There will be no need to wear a helmet (but it is recommended).

The government intends to monitor the scheme monthly. The evaluation process will look at risk vs. benefit: safety outcomes from e-scooter users, public perception (including from other road users and people with disabilities); as well as take-up and popularity.

Experience in early adopter cities worldwide shows that differences in infrastructure and culture can create very different regimes: a 6 mph speed limit in Barcelona’s cycle lanes, compulsory insurance in Berlin and helmets in Kyoto. And Paris has just announced a crackdown to stop e-scooters littering the capital.

Can you ride a private electric scooter on the road?

The only electric scooters that can be ridden on public roads are those currently part of government-backed trials such as the one being carried out in 10 boroughs of London. Privately owned e-scooters can not be ridden on public roads. They can only be used on private land. This is because they don’t always have visible rear red lights, number plates or the ability to signal when turning left or right.

Can you ride an electric scooter if banned from driving?

If you are banned from driving, this also excludes you from riding electric scooters. To ride an e-scooter, you require a category Q entitlement on your driving license. The same rules apply to e-scooters as other vehicles within the Q category.

To speak with Stuart or another of our London lawyers, contact us at 020 7485 8811 or complete an online enquiry form.

Share this article


Contact us for expert advice or to start your claim.

For a free initial conversation call 020 7485 8811

Email us Send us an email and we’ll get back to you

    Cycling News & InsightsVIEW ALL

    1. camden lock

      Guide to Bicycle Accident Settlement Amounts

      Understanding Bicycle Accident Compensation More people are taking to their bikes in the UK, both as a form of exercise...

      Read more
    2. road cyclists

      Do you have to wear a bike helmet?

      Should bike helmets be mandatory in the UK? Recently, Dan Walker was involved in a nasty collision with a motorist...

      Read more
    3. highway code bike lights

      Top 10 Major Highway Code Changes for Cyclists

      New Highway Code rules for cyclists At the end of January 2022, the Highway Code was updated to make British roads...

      Read more
    4. cyclist

      Knocked off your bike? What to do next

      Now more than ever before, people are embracing the pleasures and benefits of cycling in and around London. Unsurprisingly, the...

      Read more
    5. london eye

      Bike Boxes – what are the rules?

      Cycle boxes at traffic lights I read a post recently on a London cycling forum in relation to some confusion...

      Read more
    6. highway code road signs

      Highway Code changes just the start in protecting...

      The 2020 changes to the Highway Code do not go far enough to change driver behaviour and protect cyclists and pedestrians,...

      Read more
    7. bike rider at night

      Can Cycle Helmet Camera Footage be used as...

      Introduction to Bike Cams for Cyclists Have you ever been cut up by a van turning left? Or been riding...

      Read more
    8. cycling across a bridge in London

      Boom time for bikes – London Mayor’s new...

      Transforming London’s Streets for Post-Lockdown Commute Yesterday Sadiq Khan unveiled his ‘London Streetspace’ programme designed to transform London’s...

      Read more
    9. potholes in the road

      Cycling accidents involving potholes

      If a cyclist is injured as a result of a pothole or defect on the road they were travelling on...

      Read more
    10. santander cycles in london

      Do I need insurance for cycling?

      No legal requirement for cyclists to hold insurance There is no legal requirement for cyclists to hold insurance cover in...

      Read more
    11. car driver

      Intimidatory driving to become breach of traffic law?

      A new driving offence of ‘intimidatory driving’ is being considered by the government to crack down on close passes by...

      Read more
    12. cycling across a bridge in London

      Can a ‘bike backie’ get you in trouble?

      London’s controversial mayor Boris Johnson has been caught by The Sun newspaper giving his lawyer wife Marina Wheeler a...

      Read more
    13. abogados de accidentes de bicicle

      How Dangerous is Cycling in London?

      Personal Anecdote I acted for a client whose sensible reaction to the London Underground bombings of July 2005 was to get...

      Read more
    14. roundabout in london

      Cyclists, Roundabouts and the Highway Code

      The Highway Code is more than just a guide to how to pass your driving test. It is intended to...

      Read more